ALL ABOUT NIPAH VIRUS(NIV) INFECTION AND HOMOEOPATHIC PROPHYLAXIS
Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a newly emerging zoonosis that causes severe disease in both animals and humans. The natural host of the virus are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus.
NiV was first identified during an outbreak of disease that took place in Malaysia in 1998. On this occasion, pigs were the intermediate hosts. However, in subsequent NiV outbreaks, there were no intermediate hosts. In Bangladesh in 2004, humans became infected with NiV as a result of consuming date palm sap that had been contaminated by infected fruit bats. Human-to-human transmission has also been documented, including in a hospital setting in India.
The recent outbreak in kerala has taken the death toll to 12 as on 27.05.18. Most of the deaths reported are from Kozhikode and Malappuram districts.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF NIPAH VIRUS (NIV) INFECTION
Human infections range from asymptomatic infection, acute respiratory infection (mild, severe), and fatal encephalitis.
THE INITIAL SYMPTOMS ARE:
influenza-like symptoms of fever
myalgia (muscle pain)
dizziness, drowsiness, altered consciousness, and neurological signs that indicate acute encephalitis.
Some people can also experience atypical pneumonia and severe respiratory problems, including acute respiratory distress.
Encephalitis and seizures occur in severe cases, progressing to coma within 24 to 48 hours.
The incubation period (interval from infection to the onset of symptoms) is believed to range between from 4-14 days. However an incubation period as long as 45 days has been reported.
Most people who survive acute encephalitis make a full recovery, but long term neurologic conditions have been reported in survivors. Approximately 20% of patients are left with residual neurological consequences such as seizure disorder and personality changes. A small number of people who recover subsequently relapse or develop delayed onset encephalitis.
The case fatality rate is estimated at 40% to 75%; however, this rate can vary by outbreak depending on local capabilities for epidemiological surveillance and clinical management.
NiV infection can be diagnosed together with clinical history during the acute and convalescent phase of the disease. Main tests including real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from bodily fluids as well as antibody detection via ELISA. Different tests include:
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay
virus isolation by cell culture.
There are currently no drugs or vaccines specific for NiV infection although this is a priority disease on the WHO R&D Blueprint. Intensive supportive care is recommended to treat severe respiratory and neurologic complications.
Nipah virus infection can be prevented by avoiding exposure to sick individuals,pigs and bats in endemic areas. Avoiding personal contacts is the best option.
Source : https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/nipah/index.html
Homoeopathic system has a unique method of finding out the preventive medicine by selection of genus epidemicus (GE) on the basis of collective symptomatology (including pathology) of the patients. The concept has used many a times in the past with good results . First it was used and advocated by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann in 1801 for scarlet fever. the remedy was Belladonna. Since then genus epidemicus is being used for many epidemics . during the outbreak of swine flu in 2010 two remedies (INFLUENZINUM 200 AND ARSENIC ALBUM 200) were extensively used for prophylaxis.
Based on the data collected from care takers in Kerala – after detailed study and discussion with experts of RAECH, on the principles of homoeopathy GE,was worked out the following symptoms and found the probable Genus Epidemicus .
The main symptom found in patients in the recent NiV infection outbreak
Fever with intense heat and chilliness
Severe Head ache
Suppression of urine
Symptoms of encephalitis
Unconsciousness and coma within hours
Perspiration in diffrent parts of body
Rapid pulse in different parts of body
Final GE that can help in prevention are
IHMA study report on Nipah epidemic in Kerala
Though 100% homoeopathic prophylaxis cannot be guaranteed by GE , but owing to the fatality and high mortality of the disease prevention and prophylaxis is always recommended.